栏目

七叶树Aesculus chinensis Bunge

七叶树Aesculus chinensis Bunge

别名:天师栗;婆罗子;杪椤树;猴板栗;婆椤子树;七叶枫树;囌噜子;梭罗树;娑罗树;桫罗树;桫椤树;开心果;索罗木;梭椤子;梭椤树;梭罗子;梭罗果;娑罗子;发财树;梭萝树;

科名:七叶树科 Hippocastanaceae

属名:七叶树属 Aesculus

《中国植物志》第46卷276页
  1.七叶树(河北习见树木图说)图版83:1-5
  Aesculus chinensis Bunge. in Mem. Div. Sav. Acad. Sc. St. Petersb. 2: 84 (Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor. 10: 1833) 1835; Rehd. in Sargent, Pl. Wils. 1: 499, 1913 & in Journ. Arn. Arb. 1: 225, t, 2. 1926; Hardin in Brittonia 12: 33. 1960.

《Flora of China》 Vol. 12 (2007)
Aesculus chinensis  Bunge
七叶树   qi ye shu
Trees to 25 m tall, to 2.5 m d.b.h. Branchlets glabrous or puberulent to densely villous when young. Petiole 7-15 cm, grayish puberulent or glabrous; leaf blade 5-7(-9)-foliolate; petiolules 0.5-2.5(-3) cm, grayish puberulent or glabrous; leaflet blades oblong-lanceolate, oblong, oblong-oblanceolate, or oblong-obovate, 8-25(-30) × 3-8.5(-10.5) cm, abaxially glabrous, grayish tomentose on veins (sometimes only when young), or ± uniformly grayish tomentose or villous, base cuneate to broadly so, rounded, or slightly cordate, margin serrulate or crenulate-serrulate, apex abruptly acuminate; lateral veins in 13-25 pairs. Inflorescence puberulent or glabrous; peduncle 5-10 cm; thyrse cylindric, 15-35 cm, 2.5-12(-14) cm wide at base; branches 2-4(-6) cm, 5-10-flowered; pedicels 2-8 mm. Flowers fragrant. Calyx 3-7 mm, abaxially puberulent or glabrous. Petals 4, white, with yellow spots, subequal, oblong-obovate to oblong-oblanceolate, 8-14 × 3-5 mm, abaxially puberulent. Stamens 6 or 7, 18-30 mm; filament glabrous; anther 1-1.5 mm. Style glabrous or villous except at apex. Capsule yellowish brown, ovoid, globose, obovoid, or pyriform, 3-4.5 cm, densely dotted but smooth; pericarp 1-6 mm thick after drying. Seeds 1 or 2, brown, globose or subglobose, 2-3.5 cm in diam.; hilum white, occupying less than 1/3 to ca. 1/2 of seed. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Sep-Oct.
● Broad-leaved forests, near streams in tall shady forests, woods, thickets, mountain and hill slopes, ravines, roadsides, also cultivated; below 2000(-2300) m. Native in Chongqing, S Gansu, N Guangdong, Guizhou, SW Henan, W Hubei, Hunan, W Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, and NE Yunnan; cultivated in Hebei, N Henan, S Jiangsu, S Shaanxi, S Shanxi, and N Zhejiang.
Typical Aesculus chinensis, described from Beijing, is planted, especially in temple grounds and by houses, and is not known with certainty in a wild state. Cultivated plants from S Jiangsu and N Zhejiang were described as A. chekiangensis (reduced to varietal rank under A. chinensis in FRPS), but they are scarcely distinguishable from plants in the Beijing region and in fact have some features that were thought to distinguish A. wilsonii, namely a thinner pericarp and a smaller hilum. Aesculus wilsonii was described from wild plants in Chongqing, W Hubei, and Sichuan, and in its typical form differs from A. chinensis in the above features and in having leaves abaxially pubescent (vs. ± glabrous) with a more rounded base (vs. cuneate). Within the range of A. wilsonii occur numerous intermediates with A. chinensis, as was noted by Hardin (Brittonia 12: 34. 1960), who hypothesized that the latter species might only be a cultivated form of the former. The comment in FRPS about native plants of A. chinensis existing in the Qin Ling mountain range (S Shaanxi) was possibly based on a comment by Rehder (in Sargent, Pl. Wilson 1: 500. 1913), which was questioned by Hardin (loc. cit.), who noted that the specimens he examined from Shaanxi "represent a form of A. wilsonii." Indeed, among the intermediates mentioned above are the same gathering seen by Hardin and another from Mianxian in SW Shaanxi. While extreme forms can easily be assigned to either A. chinensis or A. wilsonii, the existence of so many intermediates makes it impossible to delimit species and difficult even to justify infraspecific taxa. We have therefore decided to recognize one variable species, A. chinensis, but nevertheless to retain a separate status for the wild plants, as var. wilsonii.

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