栏目

笃斯越桔Vaccinium uliginosum Linn.

笃斯越桔Vaccinium uliginosum Linn.

别名:笃斯、黑豆树(大兴安岭),甸果、地果、龙果、蛤塘果(吉林),讷日苏(蒙古族语)

科名:杜鹃花科 Ericaceae

属名:越橘属 Vaccinium

《中国植物志》第57(3)卷156页
  86.笃斯越桔(东北木本植物图志)笃斯、黑豆树(大兴安岭),甸果、地果、龙果、蛤塘果(吉林),讷日苏(蒙古族语)图版39:1
  Vaccinium uliginosum Linn. sp. Pl. 350. 1753: Dunal in DC. Prodr. 7: 574. 1839: Komarov in Act. Hort. Petrop. 25: 214. 1907; Nakai, Fl. Kor. 2: 71. 1911 et Fl. Sylv. Kor. 8: 62. 1917; Kitag. Lineam. Fl. Manch. 349. 1939; Sleumer in Bot. Jahrb. 71 (4): 484. 1941; E. Busch in Kom. Fl. URSS 18: 96. 1952;东北木本植物图志457, 图版144: 361. 1958; 中国高等植物图鉴3: 211. 图4376. 1974; Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 1046. 1978; Makino, New Ill. Fl. Jap. 468. fig. 1872. 1979;内蒙古植物志5: 19. 1980.
  落叶灌木,高0.5-1米(生于高山者植株高仅10-15厘米);多分枝。茎短而细瘦,幼枝有微柔毛,老枝无毛。叶多数,散生,叶片纸质,倒卵形,椭圆形至长圆形,长1-2.8厘米,宽0.6-1.5厘米,顶端圆形,有时微凹,基部宽楔形或楔形,全缘,表面近于无毛,背面微被柔毛,中脉、侧脉和网脉均纤细,在表面平坦,在背面突起;叶柄短,长1-2毫米,被微毛。花下垂,1-3朵着生于去年生枝顶叶腋;花梗0.5-1厘米,顶端与萼筒之间无关节,下部有2小苞片,小苞片着生处有关节;萼筒无毛,萼齿4-5,三角状卵形,长约1毫米;花冠绿白色,宽坛状,长约5毫米,4-5浅裂;雄蕊10,比花冠略短,花丝无毛,药室背部有2距。浆果近球形或椭圆形,直径约1厘米,成熟时蓝紫色,被白粉。花期6月,果期7-8月。
  产大兴安岭北部(黑龙江、内蒙古)、吉林长白山。生于山坡落叶松林下、林缘,高山草原,沼泽湿地,海拔900-2 300米。亚洲分布朝鲜、日本、苏联,欧洲南、北均有,北美洲分布于东北至西北;生于针叶林,泥炭沼泽,亚高山苔原和牧场,也是石南灌丛的重要成分。
  果实较大,酸甜,味佳,可用以酿酒及制果酱,也可制成饮料。
形态特征:叶灌木,高0.5--1米(生于高山者植株高仅10--15厘米);多分枝。苎短而细瘦,幼枝有微柔毛,老枝无毛。叶多数,散生,叶片纸质,倒卵形,椭圆形至长圆形,长1--2.8厘米,宽0.6--1.5厘米,顶端圆形,有时微凹,基部宽楔形或楔形,全绿,表面近于无毛,背面微被柔毛,中脉、侧脉和网脉均纤细,在表面平坦,在背面突起;叶柄短,长1--2毫米,被微毛。花下垂,1--3朵着生于去年生枝顶叶腋;花梗0.5--1厘米,顶端与萼筒之间无关节,下部有2小苞片,小苞片着生处有关节;萼筒无毛,萼齿4--5,三角状卵形,长约1毫米;花冠绿白色,宽坛状,长约5毫米,4--5浅裂;雄蕊10,比花冠略短,花姓无毛,药室背部有2。浆果近球形或椭圆形,直径约1厘米,成熟时蓝紫色,被白粉。花期6月,果期7--8月。
用    途:果实较大,酸甜,味佳,可用以酿酒及制果酱,也可制成饮料。
产地分布:产大兴安岭北部(黑龙江、内蒙古)、吉林长白山。生于山坡落叶松林下、林缘,高山草原,沼泽湿地,海拔900--2 300米。亚洲分布朝鲜、日本、苏联,欧洲南、北均有,北美洲分布于东北至西北;生于叶林,泥炭沼泽,亚高山苔原和牧场,也是石南灌丛的重要成分。
参考文献:Vaccinium uliginosum Linn.Sp.Pl.350.1753;Dunal in DC.Prodr.7:574.1839:Komarov in Act.Hort.Petrop.25:214.1907;Nakai,Fl.Kor.2:71.1911et Fl.Sylv.Kor.8:62.1917;Kitag.Lineam.Fl.Manch.349. 1939;Sleumer inBot.Jahrh.71(4):484.1941;l Busch ln Kom.Fl,URSS 18:96.1952;东北木本植物图志457.图版144:361,1958;中国高等植物图鉴3:211.圆4376.1974;Ohwi,P1.Jap,1046.1978;Makino,New 111.Fl.Jap.468.Fig.1872.1979;内蒙古植物志5:19.1980.

《Flora of China》 Vol. 14 (2005)
Vaccinium uliginosum  Linnaeus
笃斯越桔   du si yue ju
Shrubs deciduous, 0.5–1 m tall, alpine populations usually 10–15 cm tall, much branched, rhizomatous. Twigs terete, puberulous to glabrous. Leaves scattered; petiole ca. 2 mm, puberulous; leaf blade obovate or elliptic to oblong, 1–3 × 0.6–1.5 cm, papery, abaxially glaucous, puberulous, adaxially subglabrous, secondary veins 3–5 pairs, fine veins evident especially abaxially, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, margin plane, entire, with 1 basal gland per side, apex rounded, sometimes retuse. Inflorescences fasciculate, at end of shoot, 1–3-flowered; bracts caducous, 1.5–2.5 mm. Pedicel ca. 5 mm, glabrous. Flowers 4- or 5-merous. Hypanthium ca. 0.8 mm, glabrous; calyx lobes 4 or 5, triangular-ovate, ca. 1 mm. Corolla greenish white, broadly urceolate, ca. 5 mm, glabrous; lobes triangular, ca. 1 mm. Filaments ca. 1 mm, glabrous; anthers ca. 1.5 mm, thecae with 2 spurs, tubules slightly shorter than thecae. Berry 4- or 5-loculed, bluish purple, subglobose or ellipsoidal, with a bloom, ca. 1 cm in diam. Fl. Jun, fr. Jul–Aug. 2n = 24, 48.
Larix forests, forest margins, meadow-moors, alpine steppes; 900–2300 m. N Heilongjiang (Da Hinggan Ling), S Jilin (Changbai Shan), NE Nei Mongol (Da Hinggan Ling) [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia; Europe, North America].
The berry is nutritious and has a sweetish taste.

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