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水稻品质与产量关系遗传研究获进展

 

 

水稻是重要的粮食作物,提高产量和改善品质是育种家的追求。但是“高产不优质,优质不高产”是水稻育种的一个瓶颈问题。近期,中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院技术生物与农业工程研究所研究员吴跃进课题组与中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所研究员傅向东课题组合作利用籼稻品种 93-11 和粳稻品种日本晴构建的重组自交系,通过高通量测序的方法绘制出一张产量与品质相关基因的高密度连锁图谱。利用 QTL(数量性状位点)分析鉴定出多个控制粒型和稻米品质的 QTL 位点,进一步的图位克隆鉴定到五个能正向或负向影响粒型及稻米品质的主效 QTL (GW5、GW7、GW8、GS3、OsMADS1)。

研究发现,这五个 QTL 位点的不同组合能产生不同的粒型,同时能获得不同的稻米品质。通过设计将来自日本晴的 GW5、GW8 位点和来自 9311 的 GW7、GS3、OsMADS1 位点组合后即可获得最高的产量和最优的稻米品质,并通过比较 9311 和 9311-GW5NIP-GW8NIP 一对近等基因系的稻米产量和品质获得该理论的验证。

综上所述,通过合理组合多个水稻粒型控制的优异等位基因可以实现水稻产量与品质的双提升,为进一步实现高产优质的育种目标提供了新思路。相关成果已经被 Journal of Genetics and Genomics 作为封面文章发表,博士研究生吴昆为第一作者。该研究得到国家自然科学基金、中科院战略性先导科技专项等资助。(来源:中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院)

 

The rational design of multiple molecular module-based assemblies for simultaneously improving rice yield and grain quality

 

Abstract  To investigate the influence of allelic combinations of genes that regulate grain yield and quality of brown rice (whole grain rice with the inedible outer hull removed), we constructed a set of 830 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the japonica rice variety Nipponbare and the high-yielding indica cultivar 9311. The size and shape of brown rice grains were markedly different between the two parental plants; 9311 formed particularly slender but mediocre-quality grains (Fig. S1). Correlation analysis of yield and quality characteristics of brown rice indicated that 1000-brown rice weight (TBW) was positively correlated with brown rice length (BRL), brown rice width (BRW) and brown rice thickness (BRT), but it had a low correlation with length-width ratio of brown rice (BRLW) (Fig. 1A). Whilst the percentage of grains with chalkiness (PGC) was positively correlated with BRW, BRT and TBW, it had a very significantly negative correlation with BRL and BRLW (Fig. 1A). These results suggest that the slenderness of brown rice is more likely to be associated with better appearance quality.

 

原文链接:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1673852718300857?via%3Dihub

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