栏目

檫木Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl.

檫木Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl.

别名:半枫樟;功劳树;假杉木;鸭掌柴;刷木;半风樟;长毛叶枝桐;擦树;鹅脚板;山檫;枫荷桂;獭柴;花楸树;黄秋树;擦木;鹅脚掌;樟树;梓树;檫树;梓木;南树;桐梓树;梨火哄;青檫;山梓木;索树;獭枣;鸭脚掌;鸭掌秋;黄楸树;

科名:樟科 Lauraceae

属名:檫木属 Sassafras

《中国植物志》第31卷238页
  1.檫木(浙江)檫树(浙江、江西),南树、山檫(浙江),青檫(安徽),桐梓树、梨火哄(福建),梓木、黄楸树(湖北),刷木(广东封川),花楸树(云南镇雄、四川),鹅脚板(云南威信),半风樟(广西)图版64
  Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl. in Kew Bull. 55. 1907; et in Hook.Icon. Pl. 29: t. 2833. 1907; Gamble in Sarg. Pl. Wils. 2(1): 74. 1914, 2(3) 622. 1916, Rehd. in Bailey, Cyclop. Hort. 6: 3082. 1917; in Journ. Arn.Arb. 1: 244. 1920, Man. Cult. Trees 264. 1927, ed. 2, 259. 1956; Bibliogr.Cult. Trees 188. 1949, Levl. Cat. Pl. Seu-Tchouen 99. 1919; Chun, Chinese Econ. Trees 150, f. 56. l921; in Contr. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. Chinal(5): 34. 1925;et in Sunyatsenia 1: 178. 1933; Chung in Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (1): 60.1924; Wils. et Rehd. in Journ. Arn. Arb. 8: 111. 1927; Merr. in Lingnan Sci. Journ. 7: 307. 1931; et in Trans. Amer. Phil. So c. N. S. 24(2): 165. 1935;Hand.-Mazz. Symb. Sin. 7: 255. 1931; Tai et Wei in Sinensia 3 (4): 127. 1932; Lee, For. Bot. China 530, t. 144. 1935; Allen in Journ. Arn. Arb. 17: 328 1936; et in Ann. Miss. Bot. Bard. 25: 399. 1938;陈嵘, 中国树木分类学351,fig. 1937; Carroll E. Wood in Journ. Arn. Arb. 39 (3): 341. 1958; Bernardi, Lauraceas 22. 1962; 中国高等植物图鉴1: 838, 图1675. 1972.——Lindera tzumu Hemsl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26: 392. 1891.——Pseudosassafras tzumu(Hemsl.) Lec. in Not. Syst. 2: 269. 1912; et in Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 5e Ser. 5: 108. 1913; Levl. Cat. Pl. Seu-Tcheou 99. 1919; Hand.-Mazz.Symb. Sin. 7: 255. 1931; Liou Ho, Laur. Chine et Indoch. 81. 1932 et 1934;Cheng in Contr. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China 9: 190. 1934.——Litsea laxiflora Hemsl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26: 383, pl. 8. 1891; Diels in Engler, Bot.Jahrb. 29: 349. 1900; Lec. in Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 5e Ser. 5: 117. 1913. ——Pseudosassafras laxiflora (Hemsl.) Nal:ai in Journ. Jap. Bot. 16(3): 126. 1940; Kosterm. in Journ. Sci. Res. Indonesia 1: 149. 1952; C. Y. Wu et W. T. Wang in Act. Phytotax. Sin. 6 (2): 215. 1957.——Lindera camphorata Levl. in Fedde, Rep. Spec. Nov. 9; 459. 1911; Fl. Kouy-Tcheou 219. 1914.
  落叶乔木,高可达35米,胸径达2.5米;树皮幼时黄绿色,平滑,老时变灰褐色,呈不规则纵裂。顶芽大,椭圆形,长达1.3厘米,直径0.9厘米,芽鳞近圆形,外面密被黄色绢毛。枝条粗壮,近圆柱形,多少具梭角,无毛,初时带红色,干后变黑色。叶互生,聚集于枝顶,卵形或倒卵形,长9-18厘米,宽6-10厘米,先端渐尖,基部楔形,全缘或2-3浅裂,裂片先端略钝,坚纸质,上面绿色,晦暗或略光亮,下面灰绿色,两面无毛或下面尤其是沿脉网疏被短硬毛,羽状脉或离基三出脉,中脉、侧脉及支脉两面稍明显,最下方一对侧脉对生,十分发达,向叶缘一方生出多数支脉,支脉向叶缘弧状网结;叶柄纤细,长(1)2-7厘米,鲜时常带红色,腹平背凸,无毛或略被短硬毛。花序顶生,先叶开放,长4-5厘米,多花,具梗,梗长不及1厘米,与序轴密被棕褐色柔毛,基部承有迟落互生的总苞片;苞片线形至丝状,长1-8毫米,位于花序最下部者最长。花黄色,长约4毫米,雌雄异株;花梗纤细,长4.5-6毫米,密被棕褐色柔毛。雄花:花被筒极短,花被裂片6,披针形,近相等,长约3.5毫米,先端稍钝,外面疏被柔毛,内面近于无毛;能育雄蕊9,成三轮排列,近相等,长约3毫米,花丝扁平,被柔毛,第一、二轮雄蕊花丝无腺体,第三轮雄蕊花丝近基部有一对具短柄的腺体,花药均为卵圆状长圆形,4室,上方2室较小,药室均内向,退化雄蕊3,长1.5毫米,三角状钻形,具柄;退化雌蕊明显。雌花:退化雄蕊12,排成四轮,体态上类似雄花的能育雄蕊及退化雄蕊;子房卵珠形,长约1毫米,无毛,花柱长约1.2毫米,等粗,柱头盘状。果近球形,直径达8毫米,成熟时蓝黑色而带有白蜡粉,着生于浅杯状的果托上,果梗长1.5-2厘米,上端渐增粗,无毛,与果托呈红色。花期3-4月,果期5-9月。
  产浙江、江苏、安徽、江西、福建、广东、广西、湖南、湖北、四川、贵州及云南等省区。常生于疏林或密林中,海拔150-1900米。
  本种木材浅黄色,材质优良,细致,耐久,用于造船、水车及上等家具;根和树皮入药,功能活血散瘀,祛风去湿,治扭挫伤和腰肌劳伤;果、叶和根尚含芳香油,根含油1% 以上,油主要成分为黄樟油素。四川乐山及湖南、安徽常有栽培。
形态特征:落叶乔木,高达35米。叶卵圆形或倒卵形,长10-20厘米,宽8-15厘米,全缘或三裂,叶脉羽状或三出,幼时被绢毛,后无毛,叶柄细弱。总状花序,花黄色,花被里面被柔毛,雄蕊9。果熟时蓝黑色,被白粉,果梗稍扩大。花期3-4月,果期8月。
用    途:为速生用材树种,材质优良,易干燥,加工容易,切面光滑,具芳香,虫菌不易为害。种子含油主要用于制造油漆。种子和根中均含芳香油,可作调香原料。根皮含鞣质,可作栲胶原料。根、树皮及叶入药,有祛风逐湿,活血散瘀之效。树形挺拔,晚秋红叶鲜艳,是良好的风景树种。
分    布:在神农架仅见于九冲黑沟和西南部边缘。
生    境:生于海拔1800米处。
繁殖方式:播种繁殖。

《Flora of China》 Vol. 7 (2008)
Sassafras tzumu  (Hemsley) Hemsley Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew. 1907: 55. 1907.
檫木   cha mu
Lindera tzumu Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 26: 392. 1891; L. camphorata H. Léveillé; Litsea laxiflora Hemsley; Pseudosassafras laxiflorum (Hemsley) Nakai; P. tzumu (Hemsley) Lecomte.
Deciduous trees, up to 35 m tall, 2-5 m d.b.h. Bark yellow-green when young but gray-brown when mature, smooth, irregularly and longitudinally fissured. Branchlets reddish initially but blackish when dry, robust, suberect, ± angled, glabrous. Terminal buds large, ellipsoid, up to 1.3 × 0.9 cm; bud scales suborbicular, densely yellow sericeous outside. Leaves alternate, clustered at apex of branchlet, unlobed or 2- or 3-lobed; petiole always reddish when fresh, slender, (1-)2-7 cm, plano-convex, glabrous or sparsely hirtellous; leaf blade gray-green abaxially, green and opaque or slightly shiny adaxially, ovate or obovate, 9-18 × 6-10 cm, papery, glabrous on both surfaces or sometimes sparsely hirtellous especially on venation abaxially, pinninerved or triplinerved, basal lateral veins opposite, very developed, other lateral veins 5-7 pairs, midrib, lateral veins, and veinlets slightly conspicuous on both surfaces, lateral veins and veinlets anastomosing in arcuate form toward leaf margin, base cuneate, apex acuminate (but apex of lateral leaf lobes slightly obtuse). Raceme terminal, appearing before leaves, 4-5 cm, many flowered, pedunculate; peduncle less than 1 cm; rachis densely brown villous, subtended by late deciduous alternate involucral bracts at base; bracts linear to filiform, 1-8 mm, lowest one longest. Pedicel slender, 4.5-6 mm, densely brown villous. Flowers yellow, ca. 4 mm. Perianth tube very short; perianth lobes 6, lanceolate, subequal, ca. 3.5 mm, sparsely pilose outside, glabrous inside, slightly obtuse at apex. Fertile stamens 9, in 3 series, subequal, ca. 3 mm; filaments complanate, pilose; anthers ovate-oblong, 4-celled. Staminodes 3, ca. 1.5 mm, triangular-subulate, stipitate. Ovary ovoid, ca. 1 mm, glabrous; style ca. 1.2 mm; stigma discoid. Fruit subglobose, up to 8 mm in diam., blue-black and white waxy when mature, seated on red shallow perianth cup; stalk 1.5-2 cm, glabrous, gradually dilated at apex. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. May-Sep.
● Always growing in sparse or dense forests; 100-1900 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
The wood is yellowish, finely grained, durable, and used for boat-and furniture-making. The roots and bark are used medicinally for treating traumatic injuries and rheumatic disorders. The fruits, leaves, and roots contain essential oil; the roots contain ca. 1%, and its main component is safrole.The wood is yellowish, finely grained, durable, and used for boat-and furniture-making. The roots and bark are used medicinally for treating traumatic injuries and rheumatic disorders. The fruits, leaves, and roots contain essential oil; the roots contain ca. 1%, and its main component is safrole.

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